519 – Hernán Cortés entered Tenochtitlán and Aztec ruler Moctezumawelcomed him with a great celebration
1520 – Stockholm Bloodbath began A successful invasion of Sweden by Danish forces resulted in the execution of around 100 peopl
1576 – Eighty Years’ War: Pacification of Ghent – The States-General of the Netherlands met and united to oppose Spanish occupation
1602 The Bodleian Library at Oxford University opened to the public.
1620 The Battle of White Mountain ended in a decisive Catholic victory in only two hours.
1656 Edmond Halley, British astronomer and mathematician, was born (d. 1742).
1745 Charles Edward Stuart invaded England with an army of ~5000.
1793 – The French Revolutionary government opened the Louvre to the public as a museum.
1836 Milton Bradley, American game manufacturer, was born (d. 1911).
1837 Mary Lyon founded Mount Holyoke Female Seminary, which later became Mount Holyoke College.
1847 Bram Stoker, Irish novelist, was born (d. 1912).
1861 – American Civil War: The “Trent Affair” – The USS San Jacinto stopped the United Kingdom mail ship Trent and arrested two Confederate envoys, sparking a diplomatic crisis between the UK and US.
1892 The New Orleans general strike began, uniting black and white trade unionists in a successful four-day general strike action for the first time.
1895 – While experimenting with electricity, Wilhelm Röntgen discovered the X-ray.
1900 Margaret Mitchell, American author, was born (d. 1949).
1901 Bloody clashes in Athens following the translation of the Gospels into demotic Greek.
1917 The People’s Commissars gave authority to Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, and Joseph Stalin.
1923 Beer Hall Putsch: Adolf Hitler led the Nazis in an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow the German government.
1932 – Franklin Delano Roosevelt was elected the 32d President of the United States defeating Herbert Hoover.
1933 – Great Depression: New Deal – US President Franklin D. Roosevelt unveiled the Civil Works Administration, an organisation designed to create jobs for more than 4 million of the unemployed.
1935 – A dozen labour leaders came together to announce the creation of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO).
1936 – New Zealanders Griff Maclaurin and Steve Yates were part of the International Column of anti-fascist volunteers who marched into Madrid, bolstering the city’s defences against the assault of General Franco’s rebel armies.
1937 – The Nazi exhibition Der ewige Jude (“The Eternal Jew”) opened in Munich.
1939 The Centennial exhibition opened in Wellington.
1939 – Venlo Incident: Two British SIS agents were captured by the Germans.
1939 – Adolf Hitler narrowly escaped the assassination attempt of Georg Elser while celebrating the 16th anniversary of the Beer Hall Putsch.
1941 – The Albanian Communist Party was founded.
1942 – Operation Torch – United States and United Kingdom forces landed in French North Africa. French resistance coup in Algiers, in which 400 civilian French patriots neutralised Vichyist XIXth Army Corps after 15 hours of fighting, and arrested several Vichyst generals.
1950 Korean War: United States Air Force Lt. Russell J. Brown shot down two North Korean MiG-15s in the first jet aircraft-to-jet aircraft dogfight in history.
1957 – Operation Grapple X, Round C1: Britain conducted its first successful hydrogen bomb test over Kiritimati in the Pacific.
1965 – The British Indian Ocean Territory was created, consisting of Chagos Archipelago, Aldabra, Farquhar and Des Roches islands.
1965 – The Murder (Abolition of the Death Penalty) Act 1965 was given Royal Assent, formally abolishing the death penalty in the United Kingdom.
1965 – The 173rd Airborne was ambushed by over 1,200 Viet Cong in Operation Hump while the 1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment fought one of the first set-piece engagements of the war between Australian forces and the Vietcong at the Battle of Gang Toi.
1966 Former Massachusetts Attorney General Edward Brooke became the first African American elected to the United States Senate.
1973 The right ear of John Paul Getty III was delivered to a newspaper with a ransom note, convincing his father to pay $US 2.9 million.
1977 Manolis Andronikos, discovered the tomb of Philip II of Macedon at Vergina
1978 A 6.1 magnitude earthquake in Thessaloniki killed 40 people.
1987 Remembrance Day Bombing: A Provisional IRA bomb explode in Enniskillen, Northern Ireland during a Remembrance Day – killing 12 and wounding 63.
2002 Iraq disarmament crisis: UN Security Council Resolution 1441 – The United Nations Security Council unanimously approved a resolution on Iraq, forcing Saddam Hussein to disarm or face “serious consequences”.
2003 The Harris Theatere opened commencing a renaissance in the Chicago performing arts community.
2011 – The potentially hazardous asteroid 2005 YU55 passed 0.85 lunar distances from Earth (about 324,600 kilometres or 201,700 miles), the closest known approach by an asteroid of its brightness since 2010 XC15 in 1976.
Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia