644 Umar ibn al-Khattab, the second Muslim caliph, was martyred by a Persian slave in Medina.
1468 Liège was sacked by Charles I of Burgundy’s troops.
1783 John Austin, a highwayman, was the last person to be publicly hanged at London’s Tyburn gallows.
1783 The American Continental Army was disbanded.
1793 French playwright, journalist and feminist Olympe de Gouges was guillotined.
1801 Karl Baedeker, German author and publisher, was born (d 1859).
1812 Napoleon’s armies were defeated at Vyazma.
1817 The Bank of Montreal, Canada’s oldest chartered bank, opened.
1838 The Times of India, the world’s largest circulated English language daily broadsheet newspaper was founded as The Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce.
1848 A greatly revised Dutch constitution, drafted by Johan Rudolf Thorbecke, severely limiting the powers of the Dutch monarchy, and strengthening the powers of parliament and ministers, was proclaimed.
1867 Garibaldi and his followers were defeated in the Battle of Mentana and failed to end the Pope’s Temporal power in Rome.
1883 “Black Bart the poet” got away with his last stagecoach robbery, but left an incriminating clue that eventually led to his capture.
1886 Henry Reynolds launched his Anchor butter from a dairy factory at Pukekura, Waikato.
1886 – Manawatū rail link opened.
1887 Coimbra Academic Association, the oldest students’ union in Portugal, was founded.
1903 Panama separated from Colombia.
1911 Chevrolet officially entered the automobile market in competition with the Ford Model T.
1913 The United States introduced an income tax.
1918 Austria-Hungary entered into an armistice with the Allies, and the Habsburg-ruled empire dissolves.
1918 Poland declared its independence from Russia.
1930 Getúlio Dornelles Vargas became Head of the Provisional Government in Brazil after a bloodless coup.
1935 George II of Greece regained his throne through a popular plebiscite.
1942 Second Battle of El Alamein ended – German forces under Erwin Rommel were forced to retreat during the night.
1942 World War II: The Koli Point action began during the Guadalcanal Campaign.
1943 World War II: 500 aircraft of the U.S. 8th Air Force devastated Wilhelmshafen harbor in Germany.
1944 World War II: Two supreme commanders of the Slovak National Uprising, Generals Ján Golian and Rudolf Viest were captured, tortured and later executed by German forces.
1948 Lulu, British actress and singer, was born.
1952 Roseanne Barr, American actress and comedian, was boprn.
1954 Adam Ant, English singer, was born.
1964 Washington D.C. residents were able to vote in a presidential election for the first time.
1967 Vietnam War: The Battle of Dak To began.
1969 Vietnam War: U.S. President Richard M. Nixon addressed the nation on television and radio, asking the “silent majority” to join him in solidarity on the Vietnam War effort and to support his policies.
1973 NASA launched the Mariner 10 toward Mercury.
1978 Dominica gained independence from the United Kingdom.
1979 Greensboro massacre: Five members of the Communist Workers Party were shot dead and seven were wounded by a group of Klansmen and neo-Nazis during a “Death to the Klan” rally in Greensboro, North Carolina.
1982 The Salang tunnel fire in Afghanistan killed up to 2,000 people.
1986 Iran-Contra Affair: The Lebanese magazine Ash-Shiraa reported that the United States had been secretly selling weapons to Iran in order to secure the release of seven American hostages held by pro-Iranian groups in Lebanon.
1986 The Federated States of Micronesia gained independence from the United States.
1988 Tamil mercenaries tried to overthrow the Maldivian government.
2007 Pervez Musharraf declared emergency rule across Pakistan, suspending the Constitution, imposing a State of Emergency, and firing the chief justice of the Supreme Court.
Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia