202 BC Second Punic War: At the Battle of Zama, Roman legions under Scipio Africanus defeated Hannibal Barca, leader of the invading Carthaginian army.
439 The Vandals, led by King Gaiseric, take Carthage.
1216 King John of England died and was succeeded by his nine-year-old son Henry.
1453 The French recapture of Bordeaux brought the Hundred Years’ War to a close, with the English retaining only Calais on French soil.
1466 The Thirteen Years War ended with the Second Treaty of Thorn.
1469 Ferdinand II of Aragon married Isabella I of Castile, a marriage that paved the way to the unification of Aragon and Castile into a single country, Spain.
1512 Martin Luther became a doctor of theology (Doctor in Biblia).
1789 John Jay was sworn in as the first Chief Justice of the United States.
1813 The Battle of Leipzig concluded, giving Napoleon Bonaparte one of his worst defeats.
1822 In Parnaíba; Simplício Dias da Silva, João Cândido de Deus e Silva and Domingos Dias declared the independent state of Piauí.
1850 Annie Smith Peck, American mountaineer, was born (d. 1935).
1864 Battle of Cedar Creek – Union Army under Philip Sheridan destroy the Confederate Army under Jubal Early.
1864 – St. Albans Raid – Confederate raiders launched an attack on Saint Albans, Vermont.
1882 Umberto Boccioni, Italian painter and sculptor, was born (d. 1916).
1899 Miguel Ángel Asturias, Guatemalan writer, Nobel Prize laureate, was born (d. 1974).
1904 Polytechnic University of the Philippines founded as Manila Business School through the superintendence of the American C.A. O’Reilley.
1914 The First Battle of Ypres began.
1921 Portuguese Prime Minister António Granjo and other politicians were murdered in a Lisbon coup.
1931 John le Carré, English novelist, was born.
1943 Streptomycin, the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis, was isolated by researchers at Rutgers University.
1946 Philip Pullman, English writer, was born.
1950 The People’s Liberation Army takes control of the town of Qamdo in what is sometimes called the “Invasion of Tibet”.
1950 Korean War: China joined the Korean War by sending thousands of troops across the Yalu river to fight United Nations forces.
1954 First ascent of Cho Oyu.
1959 The first discothèque, The Scotch Club in Aachen, opened.
1966 President Lyndon Johnson, the first NZ president to visit New Zealand, and his wife, Lady Bird, arrived at Ohakea airfield at the start of a 24-hour visit.
1969 The first Prime Minister of Tunisia in twelve years, Bahi Ladgham, was appointed by President Habib Bourguiba.
1974 – Niue became a self-governing colony of New Zealand.
1976 Battle of Aishiya in Lebanon.
1983 Maurice Bishop, Prime Minister of Grenada, was overthrown and executed in a military coup d’état led by Bernard Coard.
1986 Samora Machel, President of Mozambique and leader of FRELIMO, and 33 others died when their Tupolev 134 plane crashed into the Lebombo Mountains.
1987 Black Monday – the Dow Jones Industrial Average fell by 22%, 508 points.
1989 The convictions of the Guildford Four were quashed by the Court of Appeal after they had spent 15 years in prison.
2001 SIEV-X, an Indonesian fishing boat en-route to Christmas Island, carrying over 400 asylum seekers, samk in international waters with the loss of 353 people.
2003 Mother Teresa was beatified by Pope John Paul II.
2004 Myanmar prime minister Khin Nyunt was ousted and placed under house arrest by the State Peace and Development Council on charges of corruption.
2004 – Care International aid worker Margaret Hassan was kidnapped in Iraq.
2005 Saddam Hussein went on trial in Baghdad for crimes against humanity.
2005 – Hurricane Wilma became the most intense Atlantic hurricane on record with a minimum pressure of 882 mb.
2007 A bomb explosion rocked Glorietta 2, a shopping mall in Makati. It killed 11 and injured more than 100 people.
Sourced from NZ History Online & WIkipedia