44 BC The first of Cicero’s Philippics (oratorical attacks) on Mark Antony.
31 BC Final War of the Roman Republic: Battle of Actium – off the western coast of Greece, forces of Octavian defeated troops under Mark Antony and Cleopatra.
1649 The Italian city of Castro was completely destroyed by the forces of Pope Innocent X, ending the Wars of Castro.
1666 The Great Fire of London broke out and burned for three days, destroying 10,000 buildings including St Paul’s Cathedral.
1752 Great Britain adopted the Gregorian calendar, nearly two centuries later than most of Western Europe.
1789 The United States Department of the Treasury was founded.
1792 During what became known as the September Massacres of the French Revolution, rampaging mobs slaughtered three Roman Catholic Church bishops, more than two hundred priests, and prisoners believed to be royalist sympathisers.
1833 Oberlin College was founded by John Shipherd and Philo P. Stewart.
1856 Tianjing Incident in Nanjing, China.
1867 Mutsuhito, Emperor Meiji of Japan, married Masako Ichijō.
1870 Franco-Prussian War: Battle of Sedan – Prussian forces took Napoleon III of France and 100,000 of his soldiers prisoner.
1885 Rock Springs massacre: 150 miners, who were struggling to unionize so they could strike for better wages and work conditions, attacked their Chinese fellow workers, killing 28, wounding 15, and forcing several hundred more out of town.
1898 Battle of Omdurman – British and Egyptian troops defeat ed Sudanese tribesmen and establish British dominance in Sudan.
1925 The U.S. Zeppelin the USS Shenandoah crashed, killing 14.
1935 Labor Day Hurricane hit the Florida Keys killing 423.
1937 Derek Fowlds, British actor, was born.
1945 World War II: Combat ended in the Pacific Theatre: the Instrument of Surrender of Japan was signed by Japanese Foreign Minister Mamoru Shigemitsu and accepted aboard the battleship USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay.
1945 Vietnam declared its independence, forming the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
1946 Interim Government of India was formed with Jawaharlal Nehru as Vice President.
1957 President Ngo Dinh Diem of South Vietnam became the first foreign head of state to make a state visit to Australia.
1958 United States Air Force C-130A-II was shot down by fighters over Yerevan, Armenia when it strayed into Soviet airspace while conducting a sigint mission. All crew members were killed.
1959 Guy Laliberté, founder of Cirque du Soleil, was born.
1960 New Zealand enjoyed perhaps its greatest day ever at an Olympic Games. First Peter Snell won gold in the 800 m, and then within half an hour Murray Halberg won the 5000 m to complete a remarkable track double in Rome’s Olympic Stadium.
1990 Transnistria was unilaterally proclaimed a Soviet republic; the Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev declared the decision null and void.
1992 An earthquake in Nicaragua killed at least 116 people.
1998 Swissair Flight 111 crashed near Peggys Cove, Nova Scotia. All 229 people on board were killed.
1998 The UN’s International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda found Jean Paul Akayesu, the former mayor of a small town in Rwanda, guilty of nine counts of genocide.
Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia