356 BC Herostratus set fire to the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World.
285 Diocletian appointed Maximian as Caesar and co-ruler.
365 A tsunami caused by an earthquake estimated to be 8.0 on the Richter Scale devastated Alexandria, killing 5,000 people in Alexandria, and 45,000 more outside the city.
1403 Battle of Shrewsbury: King Henry IV defeated rebels to the north of Shropshire.
1545 The first landing of French troops on the coast of the Isle of Wight during the French invasion of the Isle of Wight.
1568 Eighty Years’ War: Battle of Jemmingen – Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alva defeated Louis of Nassau.
1718 The Treaty of Passarowitz between the Ottoman Empire, Austria and the Republic of Venice was signed.
1774 Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed the Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji ending the Russo-Turkish war.
Here at 10-21 July 1774 was signed the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca. . .
1831 Inauguration of Léopold I of Belgium, first king of the Belgians.
1858 Alfred Henry O’Keeffe, New Zealand artist, was born (d. 1941).
1861 American Civil War: First Battle of Bull Run – the first major battle of the war began.
1865 Governor George Grey oversaw the capture of the Pai Marire (Hauhau) pa at Weraroa, Waitotara.
1865 Wild Bill Hickok shot and killed Davis Tutt in what is regarded as the first true western showdown.
1873 Jesse James and the James-Younger gang pulled off the first successful train robbery in the American Old West.
1899 Ernest Hemingway, American writer, Nobel laureate, ws born (d. 1961).
1904 Louis Rigolly, became the first man to break the 100 mph (161 km/h) barrier on land. He drove a 15-liter Gobron-Brille in Ostend.
1918 U-156 shelled Nauset Beach, in Orleans, the first time that the United States was shelled since the Mexican-American War.
1919 The dirigible Wingfoot Air Express crashed into the Illinois Trust and Savings Building in Chicago, killing 12 people.
1920 Isaac Stern, Ukrainian-born violinist, was born (d. 2001).
1922 Mollie Sugden, British comedic actress, was born (d. 2009).
1924 Don Knotts, American actor, was born (d. 2006).
1925 Scopes Trial: high school biology teacher John T. Scopes was found guilty of teaching evolution in class and fined $100.
1925 Sir Malcolm Campbell became the first man to break the 150 mph (241 km/h) land barrier at Pendine Sands in Wales. He drove a Sunbeam to a two-way average of 150.33 mph (242 km/h).
1944 World War II: Battle of Guam – American troops land on Guam starting the battle.
1944 Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg and fellow conspirators were executed in Berlin, Germany for the July 20 plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler.
1946 Barry Whitwam, British musician (Herman’s Hermits), was born.
1948 Cat Stevens (Yusuf Islam), English singer/songwriter, was born.
1948 Garry Trudeau, American cartoonist, was born.
1949 Hirini Melbourne, New Zealand musician and composer, was born (d 2003).
1949 The United States Senate ratified the North Atlantic Treaty.
1951 Robin Williams, American comedian/actor. was born.
1953 Jeff Fatt, Chinese-Australian actor was born.
1954 First Indochina War: The Geneva Conference partitioned Vietnam into North Vietnam and South Vietnam.
1955 Howie Epstein, American musician (Tom Petty & the Heartbreakers), was born (d. 2003).
1956 Michael Connelly, American author, was born.
1959 Elijah Jerry “Pumpsie” Green became the first African-American to play for the Boston Red Sox, the last team to integrate.
1961 Jim Martin, American musician (Faith No More), was born.
1961 Mercury-Redstone 4 Mission – Gus Grissom piloting Liberty Bell 7 became the second American to go into space (in a suborbital mission).
1964 Singapore Race Riot – every year since then, Racial Harmony Day is celebrated on this day.
1966 Sarah Waters, British novelist, was born.
1969 Neil Armstrong and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin became the first men to walk on the Moon, during the Apollo 11 mission.
1970 After 11 years of construction, the Aswan High Dam in Egypt was completed.
1972 Bloody Friday bombing by the Provisional Irish Republican Army around Belfast, Northern Ireland – 22 bomb explosions, 9 people killed and 130 people seriously injured.
1973 In the Lillehammer affair in Norway, Israeli Mossad agents killed a waiter whom they mistakenly thought was involved in 1972′s Munich Olympics Massacre.
1976 Christopher Ewart-Biggs British ambassador to the Republic of Ireland was assassinated by the Provisional IRA.
1977 The start of a four day long Libyan-Egyptian War.
1983 The world’s lowest temperature was recorded at Vostok Station, Antarctica at −89.2°C (−129°F).
1994 Tony Blair was declared the winner of the leadership election of the British Labour Party, paving the way for him to become Prime Minister in 1997.
1995 Third Taiwan Strait Crisis: The People’s Liberation Army began firing missiles into the waters north of Taiwan.
1997 The fully restored USS Constitution (aka “Old Ironsides”) celebrates her 200th birthday by setting sail for the first time in 116 years.
2004 The United Kingdom government published Delivering Security in a Changing World, a paper detailing wide-ranging reform of the country’s armed forces.
2005 Four terrorist bombings in London – all four bombs failed to detonate.
2008 Bosnian-Serb war criminal Radovan Karadžić was arrested in Serbia and indicted by the UN’s ICTY tribunal.
Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia