1190 Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowned in the river Saleph while leading an army to Jerusalem.
1619 Thirty Years’ War: Battle of Záblatí, a turning point in the Bohemian Revolt.
1624 Treaty of Compiègne, signed between France and the Netherlands.
1688 Prince of Wales, James Francis Edward Stuart was born (d. 1766).
1692 Salem witch trials: Bridget Bishop was hanged at Gallows Hill for “certaine Detestable Arts called Witchcraft & Sorceries”.
1710 James Short, Scottish mathematician, optician and telescope maker was born (d. 1768).
1719 Jacobite Rising: Battle of Glen Shiel.
1770 Captain James Cook ran aground on the Great Barrier Reef.
1786 A landslide dam on the Dadu River created by an earthquake ten days earlier collapses, killing 100,000 in the Sichuan province of China.
1793 The Jardin des Plantes museum opened in Paris.
1805 First Barbary War: Yussif Karamanli signed a treaty ending hostilities with the United States.
1838 Myall Creek Massacre in Australia: 28 Aboriginal Australians are murdered.
1854 The first class of the United States Naval Academy students graduated.
1864 American Civil War: Battle of Brice’s Crossroads – Confederate troops under Nathan Bedford Forrest defeated a much larger Union force led by General Samuel D. Sturgis.
1871 Sinmiyangyo: Captain McLane Tilton led 109 Marines in a naval attack on Han River forts on Kanghwa Island, Korea.
1898 Spanish-American War: U.S. Marines landed in Cuba.
1901 Frederick Loewe, Austrian-born composer, was born (d. 1988).
1906 Liberal Prime Minister Richard Seddon died at sea while returning from Australia to what he called “God’s Own Country”.
1910 Robert Still, English composer, was born (d. 1971).
1915 Saul Bellow, Canadian born writer and Nobel laureate was born (d. 2005).
1921 Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, was born.
1922 Judy Garland, American musical actress, was born (d. 1969).
1923 Robert Maxwell, Slovakian-born newspaperman was born (d. 1991).
1924 Fascists kidnapped and killed Italian socialist leader Giacomo Matteotti.
1925 Inaugural service for the United Church of Canada, a union of Presbyterian, Methodist, and Congregationalist churches, held in Toronto Arena.
1940 World War II: Italy declared war on France and the United Kingdom.
1940 – World War II: U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt denounced Italy’s actions with his “Stab in the Back” speech at the graduation ceremonies of the University of Virginia.
1940 – World War II: German forces, under General Erwin Rommel, reached the English Channel.
1940 – World War II: Canada declared war on Italy.
1940 – World War II: Norway surrendered to German forces.
1944 World War II: 642 men, women and children were killed in the Oradour-sur-Glane Massacre in France.
1944 – World War II: In Distomo, Boeotia Prefecture, Greece 218 men, women and children were massacred by German troops.
1947 Saab produced its first car.
1965 – Vietnam War: The Battle of Dong Xoai began.
1967 – Six-Day War ended Israel and Syria agreed to a cease-fire.
1973 John Paul Getty III was kidnapped in Rome.
1977 – Apple shipped its first Apple II personal computer.
1996 Peace talks began in Northern Ireland without the participation of Sinn Féin.
1999 Kosovo War: NATO suspended its air strikes after Slobodan Milošević agreed to withdraw Serbian forces from Kosovo.
2001 Pope John Paul II canonized Lebanon s first female saint Saint Rafqa.
2002 The first direct electronic communication experiment between the nervous systems of two humans was carried out by Kevin Warwick in the United Kingdom.
2003 The Spirit Rover was launched, beginning NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover mission.
Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia