On March 23:
1174 Jocelin, abbot of Melrose, was elected bishop of Glasgow.
1568 Peace of Longjumeau ended the Second War of Religion in France. Again Catherine de’ Medici and Charles IX of France make substantial concessions to the Huguenots.
1645 William Kidd, Scottish sailor, was born (d. 1701).
1708 James Francis Edward Stuart landed at the Firth of Forth.
1775 American Revolutionary War: Patrick Henry delivered his famous speech – “Give me Liberty, or give me Death!” – at St. John’s Church in Richmond, Virginia.
1801 Tsar Paul I of Russia was struck with a sword, then strangled, and finally trampled to death in his bedroom at St. Michael’s Castle.
1806 After traveling through the Louisiana Purchase and reaching the Pacific Ocean, explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark and their “Corps of Discovery” began their journey home.
1821 Battle and fall of city of Kalamata, Greek War of Independence.
1848 The immigrant ship John Wikcliffe anchored at Port Chalmers carrying the first Scottish settlers for Dunedin, New Zealand.
1848 Otago province was founded.
1857 Elisha Otis‘s first lift was installed at 488 Broadway New York City.
1862 The First Battle of Kernstown, Virginia, marked the start of Stonewall Jackson’s Valley Campaign.
1868 The University of California was founded.
1879 War of the Pacific between Chile and the joint forces of Bolivia and Peru. Chile successfully took over Arica and Tarapacá leaving Bolivia as a landlocked country.
1889 – The free Woolwich Ferry officially opened in east London.
1889 The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community was established by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad in Qadian India.
1896 The Raines Law was passed by the New York State Legislature, restricting Sunday sale of alcohol to hotels.
1903 The Wright Brothers applied for a patent on their invention of one of the first successful airplanes.
1905 Joan Crawford, American actress, was born (d. 1977).
1919 Benito Mussolini founded his Fascist political movement.
1921 Donald Campbell, British car and motorboat racer, was born (d. 1967).
1929 Sir Roger Bannister, English runner, was born.
1933 The Reichstag passed the Enabling act of 1933, making Adolf Hitler dictator of Germany.
1935 Signing of the Constitution of the Commonwealth of the Philippines.
1939 Hungarian air force attacked the headquarters of Slovak air force in the city of Spišská Nová Ves, killed 13 people and began the Slovak–Hungarian War.
1942 In the Indian Ocean, Japanese forces captured the Andaman Islands.
1949 Ric Ocasek, American musician (The Cars), was born.
1956 Pakistan becamesthe first Islamic republic in the world. (Republic Day in Pakistan).
1956 José Manuel Barroso, Portuguese politician, president of the European Commission, was born.
1962 – NS Savannah, the first nuclear-powered cargo-passenger ship, was launched as a showcase for Dwight D. Eisenhower’s Atoms for Peace initiative.
1965 NASA launched Gemini 3, the United States’ first two-man space flight.
1980 Archbishop Óscar Romero of El Salvador gave his famous speech appealing to men of the El Salvadoran armed forces to stop killing the Salvadorans.
1982 Guatemala’s government, headed by Fernando Romeo Lucas García was overthrown in a military coup by right-wing General Efraín Ríos Montt.
1983 Strategic Defense Initiative: President Ronald Reagan made his initial proposal to develop technology to intercept enemy missiles.
1989 Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann announced cold fusion at the University of Utah.
1994 Mexican presidential candidate Luis Donaldo Colosio was assassinated by Mario Aburto Martínez.
1994 – Aeroflot Flight 593 crashed in Siberia when the pilot’s fifteen-year old son accidentally disengaged the autopilot, killing all 75 people on board.
1994 – A United States Air Force (USAF) F-16 aircraft collided with a USAF C-130 at Pope Air Force Base and then crashes, killing 24 United States Army soldiers on the ground in the Green Ramp disaster.
1996 Taiwan held its first direct elections and elected Lee Teng-hui as President.
1999 Gunmen assassinated Paraguay’s Vice President Luis María Argaña.
2001 The Russian Mir space station was disposed of, breaking up in the atmosphere before falling into the southern Pacific Ocean.
2003 In Nasiriyah, Iraq, 11 soldiers of the 507th Maintenance Company and 18 U.S. Marines were killed during the first major conflict of Operation Iraqi Freedom.
2005 – A major explosion at the Texas City Refinery killed 15 workeers.
2007 Burnley Tunnel catastrophe in Melbourne.
2007 – The Iranian Navy seizes Royal Navy personnel in the waters between Iran and Iraq.
Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia