On October 1:
331 BC Alexander the Great defeated Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela.
959 Edgar the Peaceable became king of all England.
1795 Belgium was conquered by France.
1800 Spain ceded Louisiana to France via the Treaty of San Ildefonso.
1811 The first steamboat to sail the Mississippi River arrived in New Orléans, Louisiana.
1814 Opening of the Congress of Vienna, intended to redraw the Europe’s political map after the defeat of Napoléon the previous spring.
1827 The Russian army under Ivan Paskevich stormed Yerevan, ending a millennium of Muslim domination in Armenia.
1843 The News of the World tabloid began publication in London.
1847 German inventor and industrialist Werner von Siemens founded Siemens AG & Halske.
1854 The watch company founded in 1850 in Roxbury by Aaron Lufkin Dennison relocated to Waltham, Massachusetts, to become the Waltham Watch Company, a pioneer in the American System of Watch Manufacturing.
1869 Austria issued the world’s first postcards.
1880 First electric lamp factory opened by Thomas Edison.
1887 Balochistan conquered by the British Empire.
1891 Stanford University opened.
1898 Czar Nikolay II expelled Jews from major Russian cities.
1898 The Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration was founded under the name k.u.k. Exportakademie.
1903 Baseball: The Boston Americans played the Pittsburgh Pirates in the first game of the modern World Series.
1908 Ford put the Model T car on the market at a price of US$825.
1910 Los Angeles Times bombing: A large bomb destroyed the Los Angeles Times building in downtown Los Angeles, California, killing 21.
1918 World War I: Arab forces under T. E. Lawrence (a/k/a “Lawrence of Arabia”) captured Damascus.
1920 Sir Percy Cox landed in Basra to assume his responsibilities as high commissioner in Iraq.
1920 US actor Walter Matthau was born.
1924 US President Jimmy Carter was born.
1926 An oil field accident cost aviator Wiley Post his left eye – he used the settlement money to buy his first aircraft.
1928 The Soviet Union introduced its First Five-Year Plan.
1931 The George Washington Bridge linking New Jersey and New York opened.
1935 actress Julie Andrews was born.
1936 Francisco Franco was named head of the Nationalist government of Spain.
1938 Germany annexed the Sudetenland.
1939 After a one-month Siege of Warsaw, hostile forces entered the city.
1940 The Pennsylvania Turnpike, often considered the first superhighway in the United States, opened to traffic.
1942 First flight of the Bell XP-59 “Aircomet”.
1945 US musician Donny Hathaway was born.
1946 Mensa International was founded in the United Kingdom.
1947 The F-86 Sabre flew for the first time.
1958 NASA created to replace NACA.
1960 Nigeria gained independence from the United Kingdom.
1961 East and West Cameroon merged as Federal Republic of Cameroon.
1962 First broadcast of The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson.
1964 The Free Speech Movement was launched on the campus of University of California, Berkeley.
1964 Japanese Shinkansen (“bullet trains”) began high-speed rail service from Tokyo to Osaka.
1965 Apostasia of 1965, a political move in Greece designed to overthrow the Prime Minister, George Papandreou.
1965 – General Suharto crushed an attempted coup in Indonesia.
1966 West Coast Airlines Flight 956 crashed with 18 fatal injuries and no survivors 5.5 miles south of Wemme, Oregon.
1971 Walt Disney World opened near Orlando, Florida.
1975 The Seychelles gained internal self-government.
1975 Thrilla in Manila: Muhammad Ali defeated Joe Frazier in a boxing match in Manila.
1978 Tuvalu gained independence from the United Kingdom.
1978 The Voltaic Revolutionary Communist Party was founded.
1979 The United States returned sovereignty of the Panama canal to Panama.
1982 Helmut Kohl replaced Helmut Schmidt as Chancellor of Germany through a Constructive Vote of No Confidence.
1982 EPCOT Centre opened at Walt Disney World.
1982 Sony launched the first consumer compact disc player (model CDP-101).
1986 Goods & Services Tax (GST) was introduced in New Zealand.
1987 The Whittier Narrows earthquake shook the San Gabriel Valley, registering as a magnitude 5.9.
1989 Denmark: World’s first legal modern same-sex civil union called “registered partnership”
1991 New Zealand’s Resource Management Act 1991 started.
1992 Turkish destroyer TCG Muavenet (DM-357) crippled causing 27 deaths and injuries, by missiles negligently launched by U.S. aircraft carrier USS Saratoga.
1994 Palau gained independence from the United Nations (trusteeship administered by the United States of America).
1998 Vladimir Putin became a permanent member of the Security Council of the Russian Federation.
Sourced from NZ History & Wikipedia