On July 27:
1054 Siward, Earl of Northumbria invaded Scotland to support Malcolm Canmore against Macbeth of Scotland, who usurped the Scottish throne from Malcolm’s father, King Duncan. Macbeth was defeated at Dunsinane.
1214 Battle of Bouvines: Philip II of France defeated John of England.
1302 Battle of Bapheus: Decisive Ottoman victory over the Byzantines, opened up Bithynia for Turkish conquest.
1549 Jesuit priest Francis Xavier’s ship reached Japan.
1663 The English Parliament passed the second Navigation Act requiring that all goods bound for the American colonies had to be sent in English ships from English ports.
1689 Glorious Revolution: Battle of Killiecrankie ended.
1694 A Royal Charter was granted to the Bank of England.
1720 The second important victory of the Russian Navy – the Battle of Grengam.
1768 Charlotte Corday, French aristocrat who killed Jean-Paul Marat, was born (d. 1793).
1778 American Revolution: First Battle of Ushant – British and French fleets fought to a standoff.
1794 Maximilien Robespierre was arrested after encouraging the execution of more than 17,000 “enemies of the Revolution”.
1824 Alexandre Dumas, fils, French author, was born (d. 1895).
1862 The SS Golden Gate caught fire and sinks off Manzanillo, Mexico, killing 231.
1866 The Atlantic Cable was completed, allowing transatlantic telegraph communication for the first time.
1870 Hilaire Belloc, English writer, was born (d. 1953).
1880 Second Anglo-Afghan War: Battle of Maiwand – Afghan forces led by Ayub Khan defeated the British Army.
1882 Geoffrey de Havilland, British aircraft designer, was born (d. 1965).
1914 Felix Manalo registered the Iglesia ni Cristo with the Philippine government.
1916 Elizabeth Hardwick, American literary critic and novelist, was born (d. 2007).
1919 The Chicago Race Riot erupted after a racial incident on a South Side beach, leading to 38 fatalities and 537 injuries over a five-day period.
1917 The Allies reached the Yser Canal at the Battle of Passchendaele.
1921 Researchers at the University of Toronto led by biochemist Frederick Banting announced the discovery of the hormone insulin.
1928 Tich Freeman became the only bowler ever to take 200 first-class wickets before the end of July.
1929 Jack Higgins, British novelist, was born.
1940 The animated short A Wild Hare was released, introducing the character of Bugs Bunny.
1941 Japanese troops occupied French Indo-China.
1944 Bobbie Gentry, American singer and songwriter, was born.
1949 – Maureen McGovern, American singer, was born.
1949 – Robert Rankin, English novelist, was born.
1949 Initial flight of the de Havilland Comet, the first jet-powered airliner.
1953 Korean War endeed: The United States, China, and North Korea, signed an armistice agreement. Syngman Rhee, president of South Korea, refused to sign but pledged to observe the armistice.
1955 The Allied occupation of Austria stemming from World War II, ended.
1958 Christopher Dean, English figure skater, was born.
1963 Pioneeer aviator George Bolt died.
1964 Vietnam War: 5,000 more American military advisers were sent to South Vietnam bringing the total number of United States forces in Vietnam to 21,000.
1968 Cliff Curtis, New Zealand actor, was born.
1969 Jonty Rhodes, South African cricketer, was born.
1974 Watergate Scandal: The House of Representatives Judiciary Committee voted 27 to 11 to recommend the first article of impeachment (for obstruction of justice) against President Richard Nixon.
1976 Former Japanese prime minister Kakuei Tanaka was arrested on suspicion of violating foreign exchange and foreign trade laws in connection with the Lockheed bribery scandals.
1981 On Coronation Street, Ken Barlow married Deirdre Langton.
1983 Black July: 18 Tamil political prisoners at the Welikada high security prison in Colombo were massacred by the Sinhalese prisoners, the second such massacre in two days.
1987 RMS Titanic, Inc. began the first expedited salvaging of wreckage of the RMS Titanic.
1990 The Supreme Soviet of the Belarusian Soviet Republic declared independence of Belarus from the Soviet Union.
1990 – The Jamaat al Muslimeen staged a coup d’état attempt in Trinidad and Tobago, occupying Parliament and the studios of Trinidad and Tobago Television, holding Prime Minister A. N. R. Robinson, most of his Cabinet, and the staff at the television station hostage for 6 days.
1995 The Korean War Veterans Memorial was dedicated in Washington, D.C..
1996 Centennial Olympic Park bombing: In Atlanta, Georgia, a pipe bomb exploded at Centennial Olympic Park during the 1996 Summer Olympics. Alice Hawthorne was killed, and a cameraman had a heart attack fleeing the scene. 111 were injured.
1997 Si Zerrouk massacre in Algeria; about 50 people killed.
2002 Ukraine airshow disaster: A Sukhoi Su-27 fighter crashed during an air show at Lviv, killing 85 and injuring more than 100 others, the largest air show disaster in history.
2006 The Federal Republic of Germany was deemed guilty in the loss of Bashkirian 2937 and DHL Flight 611, because it was illegal to outsource flight surveillance.
2007 Phoenix News Helicopter Collision: News helicopters from television stations KNXV and KTVK collided over Steele Indian School Park in central Phoenix while covering a police chase; there were no survivors.
Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia