On July 3:
324 Battle of Adrianople Constantine I defeated Licinius.
Constantine I crowned as a victorious general.
987 Hugh Capet was crowned King of France, the first of the Capetian dynasty.
1608 Québec City was founded by Samuel de Champlain.
1728 Robert Adam, Scottish architect, was born (d. 1792).
1754 French and Indian War: George Washington surrendered Fort Necessity to French forces.
1767 Pitcairn Island was discovered by Midshipman Robert Pitcairn on an expeditionary voyage commanded by Philip Carteret.
1767 Norway’s oldest newspaper still in print, Adresseavisen, was founded and the first edition published.
1775 American Revolutionary War: George Washington took command of the Continental Army.
1778 American Revolutionary War: British forces massacred 360 people in the Wyoming Valley massacre.
1819 The Bank of Savings in New York City, the first savings bank in the United States, opened.
1839 The first state normal school in the United States, the forerunner to today’s Framingham State College, opened in Lexington, Massachusetts with 3 students.
1844 The last pair of Great Auks was killed.
1848 Slaves were freed in the Danish West Indies (now U.S. Virgin Islands) by Peter von Scholten in the culmination of a year-long plot by enslaved Africans.
1849 The French entered Rome to restore Pope Pius IX to power.
1852 Congress established the United States’ 2nd mint in San Francisco, California.
1863 U.S. Civil War: The final day of the Battle of Gettysburg culminated with Pickett’s Charge.
1866 Austro-Prussian War was decided at the Battle of Königgratz, resulting in Prussia taking over as the prominent German nation from Austria.
1884 Dow Jones and Company publishes its first stock average.
1886 Karl Benz officially unveiled the Benz Patent Motorwagen – the first purpose-built automobile.
1886 The New York Tribune became the first newspaper to use a linotype machine, eliminating typesetting by hand.
1898 Spanish-American War: The Spanish fleet, led by Pascual Cervera y Topete, was destroyed by the U.S. Navy in Santiago, Cuba.
1913 Confederate veterans at the Great Reunion of 1913 reenacted Pickett’s Charge; upon reaching the high-water mark of the Confederacy they were met by the outstretched hands of friendship from Union survivors.
1937 Tom Stoppard, Czech-born, British playwright, was born.
1938 World speed record for a steam railway locomotive was set in England, by the Mallard, which reaches a speed of 126 miles per hour (203 km/h).
1938 President Franklin D. Roosevelt dedicated the Eternal Light Peace Memorial and lights the eternal flame at Gettysburg Battlefield.
1940 World War II: the French fleet of the Atlantic was bombarded by the British fleet, coming from Gibraltar, causing the loss of three battleships: Dunkerque, Provence and Bretagne, and death of 1200 sailors.
1944 World War II: Minsk was liberated from Nazi control by Soviet troops during Operation Bagration.
1947 Dave Barry, American humorist and author, was born.
1950 – Ewen Chatfield, New Zealand cricketer, was born.
1951 Richard Hadlee, New Zealand cricketer
1952 Puerto Rico’s Constitution was approved by the Congress of the United States.
1952 The SS United States set sail on her maiden voyage to Southampton. During the voyage, the ship took the Blue Riband away from the RMS Queen Mary.
1959 Julie Burchill, British journalist and author, was born.
1960 Vince Clarke, British songwriter (Depeche Mode, Yazoo, and Erasure), was born.
1962 Tom Cruise, American actor, was born.
1962 The Algerian War of Independence against the French ended.
1963 In New Zealand’s worst internal civil aviation accident, all 23 passengers and crew were killed when a DC3 crashed in the Kaimai Range. Helicopters were used for the first time in the search and rescue operation that followed.
1964 Joanne Harris, British author, was born.
1969 The biggest explosion in the history of rocketry occurred when the Soviet N1 rocket exploded and destroyed its launchpad.
1970 The Troubles: the “Falls Curfew” began in Belfast.
1970 A British Dan-Air De Havilland Comet chartered jetliner crashed into mountains north of Barcelona killing 113 people.
1977 The Senegalese Republican Movement was founded.
1979 US President Jimmy Carter signed the first directive for secret aid to the opponents of the pro-Soviet regime in Kabul.
1986 US President Ronald Reagan presided over the relighting of the renovated Statue of Liberty.
1988 United States Navy warship USS Vincennes shot down Iran Air Flight 655 killing all 290 people aboard.
1988 Winston Reid, New Zealand – Danish Football Player, was born.
1988 The Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge in Istanbul, Turkey was completed, providing the second connection between the continents of Europe and Asia over the Bosporus.
1994 The deadliest day in Texas traffic history when 46 people were killed in crashes.
1996 Stone of Scone was returned to Scotland.
2001 A Vladivostok Avia Tupolev TU-154 jetliner crashed on approach to landing at Irkutsk, Russia killing 145 people.
2004 Official opening of Bangkok’s subway system.
2005 Same-sex marriage was legalised in Spain.
2006 Valencia metro accident left 43 dead.
2006 Asteroid 2004 XP14 flew within 432,308 kilometres (268,624 mi) of Earth.
2009 Mark II.5 Skytrain cars entered service in Metro Vancouver.
Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia.