363 Roman Emperor Julian was killed during the retreat from the Sassanid Empire. General Jovian was proclaimed Emperor by the troops on the battlefield.
1284 The legendary Pied Piper led 130 children out of Hamelin.
1409 Western Schism: the Roman Catholic church was led into a double schism as Petros Philargos was crowned Pope Alexander V after the Council of Pisa, joining Pope Gregory XII in Rome and Pope Benedict XII in Avignon.
1483 Richard III was crowned king of England.
1541 Francisco Pizarro was assassinated in Lima by the son of his former companion and later antagonist, Diego Almagro the younger.
1718 Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich of Russia, Peter the Great’s son, mysteriously died after being sentenced to death by his father for plotting against him.
1723 After a siege and bombardment by cannon, Baku surrendered to the Russians.
1817 Branwell Bronte, British painter and poet, was born (d. 1848).
1848 End of the June Days Uprising in Paris.
1857 The first investiture of the Victoria Cross in Hyde Park.
1866 George Herbert, 5th Earl of Carnarvon, English financier of Egyptian excavations, was born (d. 1923).
1870 Christmas was declared a federal holiday in the United States.
1892 Pearl S. Buck, American writer, Nobel laureate, was born (d. 1973).
1898 Willy Messerschmitt, German aircraft designer, was born (d. 1978).
1908 Salvador Allende, Former President of Chile (1970-1973), was born (d. 1973)
1909 Colonel Tom Parker, Elvis Presley’s manager, was born (d. 1997)
1909 The Science Museum in London became an independent entity.
1913 Maurice Wilkes, British computer scientist, was born.
1914 Laurie Lee, British writer, was born (d. 1997).
1917 The first U.S. troops arrived in France to fight alongside the allies in World War I.
1918 The Australian steamer Wimmera was sunk by a mine laid the year before by the German raider Wolf north of Cape Maria van Diemen.
1918 World War I, Western Front: Battle for Belleau Wood – Allied Forces under John J. Pershing and James Harbord defeated Imperial German Forces under Wilhelm, German Crown Prince.
1921 Violette Szabo, French WWII secret agent, was born (d. 1945).
1924 American occupying forces left the Dominican Republic.
1927 – The Cyclone roller coaster opened on Coney Island.
1934 President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the Federal Credit Union Act, which establishes credit unions.
1936 Initial flight of the Focke-Wulf Fw 61, the first practical helicopter.
1940 Billy Davis, Jr., American singer (The 5th Dimension), was born.
The 5th Dimension. From left: Townson, LaRue, Davis, McCoo, and McLemore.
1940 World War II: under the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, the Soviet Union presented an ultimatum to Romania requiring it to cede Bessarabia and the northern part of Bukovina.
1942 The first flight of the Grumman F6F Hellcat.
1945 The United Nations Charter was signed in San Francisco.
1948 – William Shockley filed the original patent for the grown junction transistor, the first bipolar junction transistor.
1948 Shirley Jackson‘s short story The Lottery was published in The New Yorker magazine.
1952 The Pan-Malayan Labour Party was founded, as a union of statewise labour parties.
1959 The Saint Lawrence Seaway opened, opening North America’s Great Lakes to ocean-going ships.
1960 The former British Protectorate of British Somaliland gained its independence as Somaliland .
1960 – Madagascar gained its independence from France.
1963 John F. Kennedy spoke the famous words “Ich bin ein Berliner” on a visit to West Berlin.
1973 At Plesetsk Cosmodrome 9 people were killed in an explosion of a Cosmos 3-M rocket.
1974 The Universal Product Code was scanned for the first time to sell a package of Wrigley’s chewing gum at the Marsh Supermarket in Troy, Ohio.
1975 Indira Gandhi established emergency rule in India.
1975 – Two FBI agents and a member of the American Indian Movement were killed in a shootout on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota.
1976 The CN Tower, the world’s tallest free-standing structure on land, was opened to general public.
1977 The Yorkshire Ripper killed 16 year old shop assistant Jayne MacDonald in Leeds, changing public perception of the killer as she is the first victim who was not a prostitute.
1978 – Air Canada Flight 189 to Toronto overran the runway and crashed into the Etobicoke Creek ravine. Two of 107 passengers on board died.
1991 Ten-Day War: the Yugoslav people’s army began the Ten-Day War in Slovenia.
1993 The United States launched a missile attack targeting Baghdad intelligence headquarters in retaliation for a thwarted assassination attempt against former President George H.W. Bush in April in Kuwait.
1994 Microsoft no longer supported MS-DOS and the development of FreeDOS began.
1995 Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani deposed his father Khalifa bin Hamad al-Thani, as the Emir of Qatar, in a bloodless coup.
1996 Irish Journalist Veronica Guerin was shot in her car while in traffic in the outskirts of Dublin.
1997nThe U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the Communications Decency Act violated the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.
2003 The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Lawrence v. Texas that gender-based sodomy laws were unconstitutional.
2008 The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in District of Columbia v. Heller that the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution protected an individual right, and that the District of Columbia handgun ban was unconstitutional.
Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia