On December 3:
1838 Octavia Hill, British housing and open-space activist, was born.
1842 Charles Alfred Pillsbury, American industrialist, was born.
1854 – Eureka Stockade: In what is claimed by many to be the birth of Australian democracy, more than 20 gold miners at Ballarat, Victoria, Australia were killed by state troopers in an uprising over mining licences.
The ‘Eureka Flag, flown during the rebellion
1857 Joseph Conrad, Polish-born British writer, was born.
1863 the land confiscation law was passed, allowing for the confiscation (raupatu) of Maori land as punishment of those North Island tribes who were deemed to have been in rebellion against the British Crown in the early 1860s.
1917 The Quebec Bridge opened to traffic.
1927 Andy Williams, American singer, was born.
1948 Ozzy Osbourne, English singer, was born.
1960 Bluff Harbour opened.
1952 Mel Smith, English comedian, was born.
1976 Byron Kelleher, New Zealand rugby union footballer, was born.
1976 Mark Boucher, South African cricketer, was born.
1984 Bhopal Disaster: A methyl isocyanate leak from a Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, killed more than 3,800 people outright and injures 150,000–600,000 others (some 6,000 of whom would later die from their injuries) in one of the worst industrial disasters in history.
1997 representatives from 121 countries signed The Ottawa treaty prohibiting manufacture and deployment of anti-personnel landmines.