711 Battle of Guadalete: Umayyad forces under Tariq ibn Ziyad defeated the Visigoths led by their king Roderic.
1333 Wars of Scottish Independence: Battle of Halidon Hill – The English won a decisive victory over the Scots.
1544 Italian War of 1542: The Siege of Boulogne began.
1545 The Tudor warship Mary Rose sank off Portsmouth.
1588 Anglo-Spanish War: Battle of Gravelines – The Spanish Armada sighted in the English Channel.
1692 Salem Witch Trials: Five women were hanged for witchcraft in Salem, Massachusetts.
1759 Seraphim of Sarov, Russian Orthodox Saint, was born (d. 1833).
1832 The British Medical Association was founded as the Provincial Medical and Surgical Association by Sir Charles Hastings at a meeting in the Board Room of the Worcester Infirmary.
1800 Juan José Flores, first President of Ecuador, was born (d. 1864).
1814 Samuel Colt, American firearms inventor, was born (d. 1862).
1827 Mangal Pandey, Indian freedom fighter, was born (d. 1857).
1834 Edgar Degas, French painter (d. 1917)
1843 Brunel’s steamship the SS Great Britain was launched, becoming the first ocean-going craft with an iron hull or screw propeller and also the largest vessel afloat in the world.
1863 American Civil War: Morgan’s Raid – General John Hunt Morgan’s raid into the north was mostly thwarted when a large group of his men were captured while trying to escape across the Ohio River.
1864 Third Battle of Nanking:the Qing Dynasty defeated the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom.
1865 Charles Horace Mayo, American surgeon and founder of the Mayo Clinic, was born (d. 1939).
1870 Franco-Prussian War: France declared war on Prussia.
1879 Doc Holliday killed for the first time after a man shot up his New Mexico saloon.
1896 A. J. Cronin, Scottish writer, was born (d. 1981).
1912 A meteorite with an estimated mass of 190 kg exploded over the town of Holbrook, Arizona causing approximately 16,000 pieces of debris to rain down on the town.
1916 Battle of Fromelles: British and Australian troops attacked German trenches in a prelude to the Battle of the Somme.
1919 Following Peace Day celebrations marking the end of World War I, ex-servicemen rioted and burnt down Luton Town Hall.
1937 George Hamilton IV, American country singer, was born.
1940 World War II: Battle of Cape Spada – The Royal Navy and the Regia Marina clashed; the Italian light cruiser Bartolomeo Colleoni sank, with 121 casualties.
1940 World War II: Army order 112 formed the Intelligence Corps of the British Army.
1942 World War II: Battle of the Atlantic – German Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz ordered the last U-boats to withdraw from their United States Atlantic coast positions in response to the effective American convoy system.
1946 Alan Gorrie, Scottish musician (Average White Band), was born.
1947 Brian May, English musician (Queen), was born.
1947 Prime minister of shadow Burma government, Bogyoke Aung San, 6 of his cabinet and 2 non-cabinet members were assassinated by Galon U Saw.
1963 Joe Walker flew a North American X-15 to a record altitude of 106,010 metres (347,800 feet) on X-15 Flight 90. Exceeding an altitude of 100 km, this flight qualifies as a human spaceflight under international convention.
1964 Vietnam War: At a rally in Saigon, South Vietnamese Prime Minister Nguyen Khanh called for expanding the war into North Vietnam.
1971 Urs Bühler, Swiss tenor (Il Divo), was born.
1976 Sagarmatha National Park in Nepal was created.
1979 Sandinista rebels overthrew the government of the Somoza family in Nicaragua.
1982 The Privy Council granted New Zealand citizenship to Western Samoans born after 1924. The government challenged this ruling, leading to accusations of betrayal and racism.
1983 The first three-dimensional reconstruction of a human head in a CT was published.
1985 The Val di Stava Dam collapsed killing 268 people in Val di Stava, Italy.
1989 United Airlines flight 232 crashed in Sioux City, Iowa killing 112 of the 296 passengers.
1992 Anti-Mafia Judge Paolo Borsellino and five police officers were killed by a Mafia car bomb in Palermo.
Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia