996 Emperor Otto III issued a deed to Gottschalk, Bishop of Freising, which is the oldest known document using the name Ostarrîchi (Austria in Old High German).
1179 Philip II was crowned King of France.
1348 The anti-royalist Union of Valencia attacked the Jews of Murviedro on the pretext that they were serfs of the King of Valencia and thus “royalists”.
1612 Time of Troubles in Russia: Moscow, Kitai-gorod, was captured by Russian troops under command of Dmitry Pozharsky.
1755 Lisbon earthquake: Lisbon was destroyed by a massive earthquake and tsunami, killing between sixty thousand and ninety thousand people.
1765 The British Parliament enacted the Stamp Act on the 13 colonies in order to help pay for British military operations in North America.
1790 Edmund Burke published Reflections on the Revolution in France.
1805 Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Austria during the War of the Third Coalition.
1848 The first medical school for women, The Boston Female Medical School (which later merged with the Boston University School of Medicine), opened.
1859 Cape Lookout lighthouse was lit for the first time.
1861 American Civil War: US President Abraham Lincoln appointed George B. McClellan as the commander of the Union Army, replacing the aged General Winfield Scott.
1870 The U.S. Weather Bureau (later renamed the National Weather Service) mafr its first official meteorological forecast.
1876 New Zealand’s provincial government system was dissolved.
1884 The Gaelic Athletic Association was set up.
1886 Ananda College, a leading Buddhist school in Sri Lanka was established with 37 students.
1887 – L. S. Lowry, British painter of industrial scenes, was born (d. 1976).
1894 Nicholas II became the new Tsar of Russia after his father, Alexander III, died.
1896 A picture showing the unclad breasts of a woman appeared in National Geographic magazine for the first time.
1898 The New Zealand parliament passed the Old-Age Pensions Act. A world first, the act gave a small means-tested pension to destitute older people ‘deemed to be of good character’; Chinese were specifically excluded. It is considered one of the major achievements of Richard Seddon’s Liberal government.
1911 The first dropping of a bomb from an airplane in combat, during the Italo-Turkish War.
1914 World War I: the first British Royal Navy defeat of the war with Germany, the Battle of Coronel, was fought off of the western coast of Chile, with the loss of HMS Good Hope and HMS Monmouth.
1916 Paul Miliukov delivered in the State Duma the famous “stupidity or treason” speech, precipitating the downfall of the Boris Stürmer government.
1918 Malbone Street Wreck: the worst rapid transit accident in US history with at least 93 deaths.
1918 Western Ukraine gained its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
1920 American Fishing Schooner Esperanto defeated the Canadian Fishing Schooner Delawana in the First International Fishing Schooner Championship Races in Halifax.
1922 The last sultan of the Ottoman Empire, Mehmed VI, abdicated.
1928 The Law on the Adoption and Implementation of the Turkish Alphabet, replacing the version of the Arabic alphabet previously used, came into force in Turkey.
1935 – Gary Player, South African golfer, was born.
1937 Stalinists executed Pastor Paul Hamberg and seven members of Azerbaijan‘s Lutheran community.
1938 Seabiscuit defeated War Admiral in an upset victory during a match race deemed “the match of the century” in horse racing.
1939 The first rabbit born after artificial insemination was exhibited to the world.
1941 American photographer Ansel Adams took a picture of a moonrise over the town of Hernandez, New Mexico that became one of the most famous images in the history of photography.
1942 Matanikau Offensive began during the Guadalcanal Campaign.
1943 Battle of Empress Augusta Bay, United States Marines, the 3rd Marine Division, landed on Bougainville in the Solomon Islands.
1944 – Oscar Temaru, President of French Polynesia, was born.
1944 World War II: Units of the British Army landed at Walcheren in the Netherlands.
1945 The official North Korean newspaper, Rodong Sinmun, was first published under the name Chongro.
1948 6,000 people were killed as a Chinese merchant ship exploded and sank.
1950 – Pope Pius XII claimed Papal Infallibility when he formally defined the dogma of the Assumption of Mary.
1951 Operation Buster-Jangle: 6,500 American soldiers were exposed to ‘Desert Rock’ atomic explosions for training purposes in Nevada.
1952 Operation Ivy – The United States successfully detonated the first large hydrogen bomb, codenamed “Mike” ["M" for megaton], in the Eniwetok atoll, in the Marshall Islands.
1954 The Front de Libération Nationale fired the first shots of the Algerian War of Independence.
1955 The bombing of United Airlines Flight 629 killed all 39 passengers and five crew members aboard the Douglas DC-6B airliner.
1957 The Mackinac Bridge, the world’s longest suspension bridge between anchorages at the time, opened to traffic connecting Michigan’s upper and lower peninsulas.
1961 50,000 women in 60 cities participated in the inaugural Women Strike for Peace (WSP) against nuclear proliferation.
1963 The Arecibo Observatory in Arecibo, Puerto Rico, with the largest radio telescope ever constructed, officially opened.
1981 Antigua and Barbuda gained independence from the United Kingdom.
1982 Honda becomes the first Asian automobile company to produce cars in the United States with the opening of their factory in Marysville, Ohio.
1993 The Maastricht Treaty took effect, formally establishing the European Union.
2005 First part of the Gomery Report, which discussed allegations of political money manipulation by members of the Liberal Party of Canada, was released in Canada.
2009 The inaugural Abu Dhabi Grand Prix was held at the Yas Marina Circuit.
Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia