610 Heraclius arrived by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrew Byzantine Emperor Phocas and became Emperor.
663 The battle of Baekgang began.
1209 Otto IV was crowned emperor of the Holy Roman Empire by Pope Innocent III.
1227 Assassination of Caliph al-Adil.
1363 End of the Battle of Lake Poyang; the Chinese rebel forces of Zhu Yuanzhang defeated that of his rival, Chen Youliang, in one of the largest naval battles in history.
1511 Formation of the Holy League of Ferdinand II of Aragon, the Papal States and the Republic of Venice against France.
1537 The first complete English-language Bible (the Matthew Bible) was printed, with translations by William Tyndale and Miles Coverdale.
1582 Pope Gregory XIII implemented the Gregorian Calendar. In Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain, October 4 of this year was followed directly by October 15.
Richard Cromwell, Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Irelan, was born (d. 1712).
1636 The Swedish Army defeated the armies of Saxony and the Holy Roman Empire at the Battle of Wittstock.
1693 Battle of Marsaglia: Piedmontese troops were defeated by the French.
1777 Battle of Germantown: Troops under George Washington were repelled by British troops under Sir William Howe.
1779 The Fort Wilson Riot.
1824 Mexico adopted a new constitution and becomes a federal republic.
1830 Creation of the state of Belgium after separation from The Netherlands.
1853 Crimean War: The Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia.
1876 Texas A&M University opened as the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas, becoming the first public institution of higher education in Texas.
1883 First run of the Orient Express.
1883 – First meeting of the Boys’ Brigade in Glasgow.
1895 Buster Keaton, American comedian, was born (d. 1966).
1895 The first U.S. Open Men’s Golf Championship administered by the United States Golf Association was played at the Newport Country Club.
1910 – Adoption of the Flag of Bermuda.
1918 An explosion killed more than 100 and destroyed the T.A. Gillespie Company Shell Loading Plant in Sayreville, New Jersey.
1921 Riccardo Zanella became the first elected president of Free State of Fiume.
1923 US actor Charlton Heston was born(d 2008).
1927 Gutzon Borglum began sculpting Mount Rushmore.
1928 Alvin Toffler, American novelist, was born.
1931 Sir Terence Conran, English designer, restaurateur, retailer and writer, was born.
1937 English writer Jackie Collins was born.
1941 Anne Rice, American writer, was born.
1941 Norman Rockwell’s Willie Gillis character debuted on the cover of the Saturday Evening Post.
1942 Johanna Sigurdardottir, Prime Minister of Iceland, was born.
1943 U.S. captured Solomon Islands.
1947 Jim Fielder, American bassist (Blood, Sweat & Tears), was born.
1957 Auckland businessman Morris Yock trademarked the jandel.
1957 Launch of Sputnik I, the first artificial satellite to orbit the Earth.
1957 Avro Arrow roll-out ceremony at Avro Canada plant in Malton, Ontario.
1958 Fifth Republic of France was established.
1959 Chris Lowe, British musician (Pet Shop Boys), was born.
1960 Eastern Air Lines Flight 375, a Lockheed L-188 Electra, crashed after a bird strike on takeoff from Boston’s Logan International Airport, killing 62 of 72 on board.
1962 Carlos Carsolio, Mexican alpinist. Fourth person to summit all 14 of the eight-thousanders.
1966 Basutoland becomes independent from the United Kingdom and was renamed Lesotho.
1976 Official launch of theIntercity 125 High Speed Train (HST).
1983 Richard Noble set a new land speed record of 633.468 mph (1,019 km/h), driving Thrust 2 at the Black Rock Desert, Nevada.
1985 Free Software Foundation was founded in Massachusetts.
1991 The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was opened for signature.
1992 The Rome General Peace Accords ended a 16 year civil war in Mozambique.
1992 El Al Flight 1862: an El Al Boeing 747-258F crashed into two apartment buildings in Amsterdam, killing 43 including 39 on the ground.
1993 Russian Constitutional Crisis: In Moscow, tanks bombard the White House, a government building that housed the Russian parliament, while demonstrators against President Boris Yeltsin rallied outside.
1997 The second largest cash robbery in U.S. history took place at the Charlotte, North Carolina office of Loomis, Fargo and Company.
2001 NATO confirmed invocation of Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty.
2001 Siberia Airlines Flight 1812: a Sibir Airlines Tupolev TU-154 crashed into the Black Sea after being struck by an errant Ukrainian S-200 missile. 78 people were killed.
2003 Maxim restaurant suicide bombing in Haifa: 21 people were killed, and 51 others wounded.
2010 – The Ajka plant accident in western Hungary released about a million cubic metres (35 million cubic feet) of liquid alumina sludge. Nine people were killed and 122 injured, and the Marcal and Danube rivers were severely contaminated.
Sourced from NZ history Online & Wikipedia